ISLAMIC SCIENCES THROUGH CENTURIES:
THE PLACE OF THE FIFTH CENTURY OF HIJRI IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ISLAMIC SCIENCES

We invite you to participate in our international symposium, which we are organising under the title of The Place of the Fifth Century of Hijri in the Development of Islamic Sciences, with a paper.

 

Justification

It is essential to learn how Islamic sciences started and developed in the first centuries. To see the point reached in the later periods and today and to understand how it has evolved, it is necessary to know the emergence and development process well.

To enable some determinations about how and under which conditions Islamic sciences emerged and what kind of process it followed, we are dealing with the first century of Islamic sciences and the centuries after that, as a series of international symposiums, with the subheading “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries”. In this framework, we examine each century in a separate symposium, discuss the Islamic sciences of that century as a whole and try to bring them up to date. With this, we aim to reveal how the basic Islamic sciences emerged, how they developed, what subjects they started, what course they followed, how much they overlap with the issues we know today, whether they have anything to do with some problems we live in as the Islamic world today, in the historical process or whether there are some breaks, changes, differentiations in any place, and thus to contribute to Islamic science, culture and civilization.

We also try to determine in which centuries, in terms of Islamic sciences, more scientific activities and services were presented, which centuries were richer and brighter in terms of scientific activities, in which centuries scientific studies were weak and insufficient; what is the relationship between the rich or weak scientific activities with the general course of those centuries, administration, politics and socio-cultural situations, how social conditions play a role in the decrease and increase of scientific activities, their quality or weakness; under which conditions sciences diversified and enriched, which conditions regressed scientific studies, whether scientific services and activities have a relationship with geographical regions and factors such as people, climate and nature in those regions if scientific activities diversified and enriched in any region in any century, what factors were effective in this.

Previous Studies

We tried to reveal the birth, establishment and blooming of Islamic sciences in the first century of Hijri with the title of “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries: International Symposium of the First Century of Hijrah”. In the birth and discovery of Islamic sciences, we tried to show the place and role of the Prophet and his Companions. Likewise, in this century, we tried to show the position and influence of scholars from the Followers generation (tâbiûn) in the development of Islamic sciences. We have tried to highlight the developments in this century, their causes, consequences and their reflections on the next centuries. Around 180 Turkish, Arabic and English papers were sent to the symposium from 16 countries. Since it is not possible to present all of them in two days, 50 papers selected according to various criteria were presented on 24-25 October 2019 at the conference halls of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology with the participation of a large number of listeners. The papers were published as an e-book under the name of Islamic Sciences in the First Century of Hijri (Istanbul: Ensar Publications, 2020, 2 volumes) in the form of an edited book after being passed through the referee process.

We continued this activity, which we took a break in 2020 due to the pandemic, in 2021 with the title of “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries: International Symposium of The Place of the Second Century Hijri in the Formation of Islamic Sciences”, and we covered the developments in the field of Islamic sciences in this century. In the first thirty-five years of this century, the influence of the Tabiun generation continues. After them comes the generation of The Tābiʿū al-Tābʿīn who grew up at their knees. We examined the contribution of all these to the development of Islamic sciences. We examined Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik, who are among the most important figures of this century, and their scientific activities. We revealed the sects that emerged in this period, their effects on the following periods, the scholars who came to the fore in fields such as tafsir, hadith, fiqh, theology, akaid, mysticism, Arabic language and rhetoric, recitation, sirah, Islamic history, history of religions, their works and their effects in various aspects. We tried to introduce the first founding texts written in these fields and the founding persons who gave life to these texts with various studies. In addition, we tried to deal with the mihne incident and translation activities, which are important matters due to their emergence in this century. At the symposium organized by Istanbul University, our partner is the Economic Development and Social Research Institute, an international organization known briefly as IKSAD. There was great interest in this symposium. Around 100 papers were sent from 14 different countries in Turkish, Arabic and English. The symposium, in which 62 papers were presented due to the pandemic, was held online on October 22-23, 2021. Some papers were published as an e-book under the name of Islamic Sciences in the Second Century of Hijri (Ankara: IKSAD Publications, 2022, 5 volumes) after passing through the referee process.

 

In 2022, we organised our third symposium under the title of International Symposium on the Role of the Hijri Third Century in the Development of Islamic Sciences, where we focused on the role of the third century in the development of various sciences. In this study, we have discussed the important names and important works of the third century of Hijri in the fields of tafsir, hadith, fiqh, theology, history of sects, Sufism, Arabic language, Qiraat, as well as history, Sirat, geography, astronomy, and literature. This century is the golden age of hadith. The most important names in the field of hadith, especially Bukhārī and Muslim, and the most authoritative works such as Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh al-Muslim came into existence in this century. Scholars such as Imam Shafi’i and Ahmad b. Hanbal were also treated as very important figures of this century because their death dates were in this century. Personalities such as Bakiy b. Mahled, Yahya b. Sallām, and many other scholars and their works were also discussed in this context. This century is a century in which very important events such as translation activities and extremely sad events such as Mihna were effective; in this respect, these were also examined. This symposium also attracted great interest. Around 118 papers were submitted from 16 different countries in Turkish, Arabic and English. Our organising committee and Scientific and Advisory Board found 106 of them suitable for presentation. The symposium was held on 25-26 November 2022 in parallel in three separate halls at the same time in the conference halls of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology. Some of these papers, together with other works sent to be published as book chapters, will be published as edited book after the referee process. The Turkish and English ones will be published as e-books under the title of Islamic Sciences in the Third Century of Hijrî in Ankara among IKSAD Publications. The Arabic ones published by an international publishing house in Morocco under the title al-Ulūm al-Islāmiyya fī al-Qarn al-Thālith al-Hijrī on January 2024.

 

In our fourth symposium, titled The Place of the Islamic Sciences in the Development of the Fourth Century of the Hijri Calendar in 2023, organized by Istanbul University, we discussed how Islamic sciences progressed during this century. In the fourth century of the Hijri calendar, many important scholars emerged and significant works were produced in fields such as exegesis, hadith, jurisprudence, theology, mysticism, Arabic language, history, philosophy, medicine, and many others. Mention should be made of scholars such as Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Maturidi, Abu al-Qasim al-Balkhi, Abu Ishaq al-Zajjaj, Abu Bakr Ibn al-Munzir, Abu Muslim al-Isfahani, Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Abu Ja’far al-Nahhas, Abu Bakr al-Jassas, and Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi. Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu al-Qasim al-Tabarani, Abu Hatim Ibn Hibban, Abu al-Hasan al-Darqutni, and Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari are also extremely important figures. Al-Hallaj, Abu Nasr al-Sarraj, Abu Talib al-Makki, Abu al-Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi, and Abu Bakr b. Huzayma Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi are also renowned scholars. As explained above, it was deemed beneficial to academically and scientifically examine what happened in this century, which is of great importance in many respects, in the same way we did for the previous three centuries. With this belief, we organized such an event. A total of 119 papers were submitted to our symposium, 45 from our country and 74 from abroad. Some of these papers were jointly prepared. Taking this into account, the number of academics who wanted to participate in the symposium was around 125. These papers were carefully examined by the organizing committee. The faculty members of our Science and Advisory Board also reviewed the papers and marked them as ACCEPT or REJECT. At the end of all these processes, a total of 83 papers were included in the program. These papers were presented on November 17-18, 2023, in the conference halls of the Faculty of Theology of Istanbul University. Some of these papers, which were converted into book chapter format, and some other works will be published as an editorial book in e-book form by an international publisher. Our symposium, organized by Istanbul University, was partnered by the Faculty of Usul al-Din at Jamia Abdelmalek Essaadi in Morocco; the Directorate of Distinctive Studies in Islamic and Muhatabaru Kadaya’t-Tajdid fi al-Dirasat al-İslamiyya wa al-Insaniyya at the Faculty of Pluridisciplinary Studies within Jamia Mohammed Al-Awwal in Morocco; the Directorate of Distinctive Islamic Sciences at Jamia Abdelmalek Essaadi in Morocco; the Rectorate of the Higher Islamic Institute in Bulgaria/Sofia; and the Istanbul Dar al-Funun Foundation.

 

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE PLACE OF THE FIFTH CENTURY OF HIJRI IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC SCIENCES

 

In 2024, it aims to examine various sciences in terms of the fifth century of Hijri with the title of the International Symposium On The Place Of The Fifth Century Of Hijri In The Development Of Islamic Sciences.

 

Why The Fifth Century of Hijri

 

The fifth century of the Hijri calendar was a vibrant, intense, and eventful century in every aspect. It has been highly influential and left its mark on the centuries that followed. The events, turmoil, wars, ideas, scholars, authored works, commentaries and annotations on previously written works, restructuring and systematizing of thoughts, and many other aspects of this period have distinguished it from other centuries. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary and encyclopedic nature of the scholars of this century, as well as their fame in several different fields of knowledge, and the fact that their works have become source books in different fields, are also remarkable features of this century. The century is important in that the spread of knowledge extended beyond specific cities and regions to the vast geography of the Islamic world. Islamic sciences flourished and spread more widely in cities such as Bukhara, Samarkand, Merv, Ray, Isfahan, Nishapur, Balkh, and Rey in Iran, Khurasan, and Transoxiana than in the cities that were the first and fundamental sources of knowledge, such as Mecca, Medina, Damascus, Sanaa, and Baghdad. We can say that important scholars emerged from these regions, and significant works were authored there. The century is also significant in terms of Islamic sciences, schools of thought, educational practices, natural events, assassinations, power struggles, and esoteric movements, among others. The beginning of the Crusades in this century, and the fact that Jerusalem, which had been in Muslim hands since the time of Caliph Umar, fell back into the hands of Christians during this century, are also prominent aspects of this period.

 

Due to all these and many other important events, we chose the fifth century of the Hijri calendar as the topic for this year’s symposium. When we refer to the fifth century of the Hijri calendar, we mean the years between Hijri 400-499, corresponding to AD 1010-1107, and geographically, we refer to a region from the Great Wall of China to the Atlantic Ocean, from the Aral Sea to the Yemen-Oman Sea. This also includes the Umayyad Emirate of Andalusia, extending from Jebel Tarik to the border of France. In this symposium, we plan to discuss in detail the significant events, scholars who lived and passed away, important books written, and similar matters that took place in the Islamic geography indicated within these years.

 

 

The World in the Fifth Century of Hijri

 

In the fifth century of the Hijri calendar, some significant events also took place outside the Islamic world. Firstly, it should be noted that during this century, China was ruled by strong dynasties. Korea was in a state of turmoil. India consisted of small states lacking unity and integrity. There was no strong structure in the region of Russia. The Pechenegs in the southern region were not strong enough to pose a great danger. In Europe, the Normans and Bulgarians were more influential. Byzantium continued to be the most influential power in the region. Between 1010-1011, the Second Goryeo-Kitan War took place in Korea. The Korean king was defeated and had to temporarily flee the capital. However, they were able to return to the capital after the Kitan forces withdrew. In 1014, the Byzantine armies of Emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian ruler Samuel at the Battle of Kleidion and achieved a great victory. Sicily, which had been under Muslim rule for a while, was ruled by the Normans between 1061-1091. In 1065, the Kingdom of Galicia under Garcia and the independence of Portugal occurred. In 1066, at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, the last Anglo-Saxon king Harold Godwinson defeated the Norwegian king Harald III. In the same year, at the Battle of Hastings, the Norman William conquered England. In 1072, the Battle of Golpejera took place between the Castilian king Sancho II and his brother Alfonso VI, and the king dispersed his brother’s army.

 

Religions in the Fifth Century of Hijri

 

In the fifth century of the Hijri calendar, Christianity also maintained its power and influence outside of Islam. In 1054, Christianity split into the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. With this development, which was very important for Christianity, Christianity was divided in a sense. In the same period, after the Christianization of all of Northern Europe, the Russians also converted to Christianity. Judaism did not show much presence in this century, as in other centuries. Jews were generally involved in commercial activities. Some Jewish scholars engaged in various fields, especially medicine. They also tried to establish themselves and serve caliphs, sultans, and kings. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and other religions continued to exist, especially in the geography of India. From time to time, there were various debates and different schools of thought emerged within these religions. In the China-Japan region, besides Buddhism, philosophical/religious movements such as Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism were influential. Although the religions of Manichaeism and Sabianism existed in the region, their followers were very few and they had no influence.

 

Sects in the Fifth Century of Hijri

 

In this century, we see Ash’arism emerging as an influential doctrinal sect. Many famous scholars belong to this sect, and various books are being written that confirm and support the sect’s ideas and thoughts, demonstrating its validity. Although Mu’tazilism still has some influence, it is not as effective and widespread as Ash’arism. However, there are still influential and powerful Mu’tazili scholars who continue to produce important works in various fields. Qadi Abdul Jabbar, for example, wrote a commentary on the five principles of Mu’tazilism in this century, which received much attention. Abu Nasr Kunduri, the chief vizier of Seljuk Sultan Tughril Bey, was a Mu’tazilite. Thanks to him, Mu’tazilism gained some influence in the Seljuk territory. When Tughril Bey passed away and was succeeded by Alp Arslan, this person’s duty was terminated, and Nizam al-Mulk, who was an Ash’arite, was appointed in his place. Nizam al-Mulk assigned Ash’arite teachers in the Nizamiyah madrasas he established in various cities, thereby significantly spreading Ash’arism. Shia Islam also continues to exist in this century. Especially the Shi’ism of the Fatimid State – which later claimed the caliphate – and the Buyids contributed to the influence of this sect. However, it cannot be said that the sect was respected or widespread among the people. Batini movements are quite influential in this century. Especially Shi’i Ismailis and the Assassins, also known as the Hashshashins, under the leadership of Hasan-i Sabbah, who settled in the Alamut Castle, pose a dangerous situation. They instil great fear among the people through pressure and violence. Additionally, assassinations carried out by fedayeen, have caused anxiety in the Seljuk palace. Unfortunately, Nizam al-Mulk, the most powerful vizier of the Seljuk State, was assassinated in 485/1092 in a palace assassination organized by them. The Carmathians also occasionally posed a threat during this period. Another Batini sect that survived in the fifth century of the Hijri calendar was the Qarmatians. They tried to create fear among scholars, instil fear among the people, and spread in this way.

 

As for the amali/fiqhi sects, Shafi’ism is prevalent almost everywhere in the Islamic world in this century. Hanafism is more influential in the region of Transoxiana. In Iraq, Egypt, North Africa, and the Andalusian region, the Maliki school is strong. In the Andalusian region, especially due to the influence of Ibn Hazm, Zahiriyya is also influential. Hanbalism is present, especially in the Syria-Iraq region. Ja’farism is widely adopted, especially among the Shia.

 

In the Islamic Geography in the Fifth Hijri Century

Accordingly,
if we were to mention the current country names, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Turkestan (Xinjiang region), Pakistan, Bangladesh, the majority of India, Iran, all of the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, including all of North Africa, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, the entire Anatolia, and vast regions like Sicily were known as the Islamic geography. As can be understood from the map of that period, one end of the Islamic geography was in the Atlantic Ocean, and the other end was at the Great Wall of China. Muslims were dominant in the Mediterranean as well as in the Caucasus and Central Asia.

 

The fifth Hijri century was politically very dynamic. The century is remarkable for the establishment of new states and the collapse of old ones, alongside the ineffective and stagnant Abbasid Caliphate. Four caliphs served during the fifth Hijri century. Although these caliphs were sometimes influential in governance, they mostly remained under the influence of other more powerful states of that time. The selection, removal, and punishment of the caliph were mostly done according to the wishes of the rulers of these states.

 

Abbasid Caliphs Who Served in the Fifth
Century of the Islamic Calendar and Their Terms in Office

Sequence Number

Caliphate Order

Name

Years of Duty

Date of Death

Term of Office

Hijri

Gregorian

Hijri

Gregorian

1

25

Al-Qadir Billah

381-422

991-1031

422

1031

41 Years

2

26

Al-Qa’im Bi-Amr Allah

422-467

1031-1075

467

1075

45 Years

3

27

Al-Muqtadi Bi-Amr Allah

467-487

1075-1094

487

1094

20 Years

4

28

Al-Mustazhir Billah

487-512

1094-1118

512

1118

25 Years

 

At the beginning of the century, Al-Qadir Billah, the twenty-fifth caliph of the Abbasids (reigning from 381-422/991-1031), served as caliph. Al-Qadir Billah began his caliphate in 381/991, continuing his role into the first quarter of the fifth century. He served as caliph for a total of 41 years. Following him, Al-Qa’im Bi-Amr Allah assumed the caliphate and remained in office for 45 years. These two caliphs are among the longest-reigning figures in the Abbasid era. The era ended during the caliphate of Al-Muqtadi Bi-Amr Allah. He began his caliphate in 487/1094 and continued until the first twelve years of the sixth century. Normally, with the caliphate changing hands less frequently, this era was expected to be more stable, secure, and effective. Each caliph served for many years. Even the shortest-reigning caliph of the era, Al-Muqtadi Bi-Amr Allah, ruled for twenty years. However, this was not the case. The era saw caliphs as figures with minimal influence, serving as symbolic figures at best. Arslan Besâsirî, a commander of the Buwayhi-Fatimid forces, treated the caliph like a toy, making him do whatever he wished. The caliph’s main duty was to declare and approve the leaders of powerful states as kings or sultans. Nevertheless, as a representation of the world of Sunni Islam, the caliphate
had a certain level of influence and power.

 

During this century, while the Abbasid Caliphate continued in Baghdad, the Fatimids, established in North Africa with Egypt as their center, also ruled the Fatimid Caliphate there. Five Fatimid caliphs served during this period: (1) Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (386-411/996-1021); (2) Al-Zahir li-i’zaz Din Allah (411-427/1021-1036); (3) Al-Mustansir Billah (427-487/1036-1094); (4) Al-Musta’li Billah (487-495/1094-1101); and (5) Amir bi-Ahkam Allah (495-524/1101-1130).

 

Several Islamic states and dynasties existed during this century. Although most of them acknowledged the Abbasid caliphate, they functioned as independent states or dynasties. These states or dynasties often engaged in wars with the Abbasids or among themselves, and at times, one state or dynasty could be eliminated by another Islamic state.

 

States and
Dynasties Influential in the Fifth Century AH

order

Name

Influential
Regions

Years of
Rule (Establishment and Dissolution)

Trend of
Madhhab

Nationality

Reign period

Hicrî

Mîlâdî

1

Karahanids

Central
Asia-Transoxiana

225-609

840-1212

Sunni

Turkish

372 Years

2

Fatimids

Egypt-North
Africa-Sham region

296-566

909-1171

Shia

Arab

262 Years

3

Buveyhids

Iran-Iraq

320-454

932-1062

Shia

Persian

130 Years

4

Ghaznavids

Afghanistan-India-Iran

351-582

963-1186

Sunni

Turkish

223 Years

5

Seljuks

Iran-Eastern Anatolia

432-708

1040-1308

Sunni

Turkish

268 Years

6

Marwanids

Diyarbakir-Southeastern
Anatolia

373-478

983-1085

Sunni

Kurdish

102 Years

7

Anatolian
Seljuks

Anatolia-Syria

467-708

1075-1308

Sunni

Turkish

233 Years

 

 

 

During this period, we see seven states and dynasties that had relations with the Abbasid Caliphate and sometimes had significant influence over the caliphate. Some of them were established before the fifth century, which we are focusing on here, and continued to exist after this century. Some emerged in this century, while others disappeared or lost their effectiveness. These were mostly Turkic states. In terms of religious denomination, they were mostly Sunni.

The Islamic State of Andalusia was entirely dominant in the present-day territories of Spain and Portugal. However, unlike the Baghdad Caliphate, the Andalusian region was very unstable and troubled during this century. The caliphs were powerless and ineffective, and the dynasties that took control of the administration also failed to establish order and stability. There were even caliphs who ruled for only 47 days. Others could only stay in the caliphate for a short time. So much so that in the first 22 years of the century, the administration changed hands nine times.

 

 

The Rulers/Caliphs Who Served
in Andalusia During the Fifth Islamic Century and Their Terms in Office:

Order

Caliphate
Order

Name

Years of Duty

Date of
Death

Term of
Office

Hijri

Gregorian

Hijri

Gregorian

 

1

13

II. Hisham (Second Reign)

400-403

1010-1013

403

1013

3 years

2

14

Sulayman al-Müsteîn (Second Reign)

403-407

1013-1016

407

1016

4
years

3

15

Hammûdid Dynasty

407-407

1016-1016

 

 

A few months

4

16

IV. Abdurrahman

408-408

1018-1018

408

1018

A few months

5

17

Hammûdid Dynasty

408-413

1018-1022

 

 

5 years

6

18

V. Abdurrahman

414-414

1023-1024

414

1024

47 days

7

19

III. Muhammad

414-416

1024-1025

 

 

1.5 years

8

20

Hammûdid Dynasty

416-418

1025-1027

 

 

2 years

9

21

III. Hisham

418-422

1027-1031

428

1036

4 years

10

22

Taifa Kingdoms Period

422-483

1031-1090

 

 

61 years

11

23

Almoravid Dynasty Period

483-542

1090-1147

 

 

59 years

 

Due to the ineffectiveness and lack of authority of the caliphs, the Hammudids took control several times. After this, the period known as “Muluk al-tawaif” began. Following these 61 years, the Almoravids came to power towards the end of the century. The century ended under the rule of the Almoravids.

 

Wars in the Fifth Century of Hijri

 

The century is also significant in terms of wars. Especially the Battle of Dandanakan between the Seljuks and the Ghaznavids, and the Battle of Manzikert between the Seljuks and the Byzantines are very important. The Battle of Dandanakan in 432/1040 between the Ghaznavids and the Seljuks was one of the most important battles of the period. The battle ended with the victory of the Seljuks, and with this victory, the Seljuk State emerged in this century. In fact, the Seljuks are the most prominent in this century. They were founded in this century and gained great fame through their major battles and protection of the caliphate. From this perspective, it is possible to describe the fifth century as the Seljuk century.

 

The Crusades

 

One of the most significant events of the fifth century AH was the Crusades. Pope Urban II, using the Byzantine Empire’s plea for help against the Seljuks as a pretext, decided to launch a major expedition towards Jerusalem and the Palestinian territories, which they considered the Holy Land and where the tomb of Jesus is located. He stirred up the kings of the time and the Christian people with great propaganda and incitement based on religion. As a result, the first Crusade took place in 488/1095. The Crusades that began in this year would continue for two hundred years. In 499/1096, Christian knight armies from various parts of Europe, primarily from France and Northern Italy, gathered in
Constantinople, and from there marched towards Jerusalem via Antioch.

 

Occupation of Jerusalem

 

One of the most significant events of the fifth century AH was the occupation of Jerusalem by the Crusaders. There was no force to resist the Crusader army marching from Antioch to Jerusalem. The Seljuks, who had previously put up a fierce defense against the Crusaders, were forced to retreat. The Crusaders arrived at the gates of Jerusalem in 492/1099 and easily captured Jerusalem, which was then under the control of the Fatimids. They committed one of the greatest atrocities in history in Jerusalem; they slaughtered all Muslims, men, women, children, young, and old, with the sword. Just like the cruel state of Israel does to the Palestinians in Gaza today… They subjected the Jews and even the local Christians living in the city to the same fate. The Crusaders thus gained control over the entire region, especially Jerusalem, from the end of this century onwards.

 

The Struggle Against the Batini Sects

 

The Batini Ismaili sect began to emerge after the death of Ja’far al-Sadiq in 148/765 in the second century AH. This sect, which was occasionally influential in the third and fourth centuries AH, became more influential, especially in the fifth century AH. With the capture of Alamut Castle by Hasan Sabbah in 483/1090, the Bâtınîs became significantly stronger and began to exert more influence. This sect, known for carrying out many assassinations, including the assassination of Nizam al-Mulk, became a nuisance to the Seljuk state. Seljuk sultans made several attempts to capture Alamut Castle and destroy this nest of sedition. They even besieged the castle, but for various reasons, they were unable to capture it.

 

Nizamiye Madrasahs

 

Despite the wars and internal conflicts that occurred in the fifth century of the Islamic calendar, there were significant initiatives in some regions, although there were not many visible developments in terms of construction, education, and trade movements in the Islamic world. Particularly, the Nizamiye Madrasahs are of great importance. Claimed to be the first university on earth, this madrasah was founded in Baghdad by Nizamülmülk during the reign of Alp Arslan. The Shia-Batini movements were intensively propagandizing under the guise of knowledge to influence people’s thoughts and deceive their minds. In response to these harmful and dangerous activities, and to establish a strong Sunni creed, the first madrasah was opened in Baghdad. Subsequently, new madrasahs were established in other important centers. These madrasahs also trained qualified personnel needed by the state.

 

Translation of the Qur’an into Turkish

 

The Qur’an was translated into Farsi as a whole for the first time in the middle of the fourth century of the Hijri calendar. Some researchers say that the first translation of the Qur’an into Turkish, after Farsi, was done by Turkish scholars who were part of the team that translated into Farsi in the middle of the fourth century of the Hijri calendar. On the other hand, some researchers, considering the process of Turks becoming Muslims, have argued that the translation into Turkish was done in the fifth century of the Hijri calendar. If we accept this view, the translation of the Qur’an into Turkish can be considered as one of the important developments of the fifth century of the Hijri calendar.

 

Scholars and Scholarly Activities

 

The fifth century of the Hijri calendar was a very important century in terms of the disciplined development of Islamic sciences. Renowned scholars who made significant contributions to their fields emerged in this century, producing important works. The great scholars of Islamic jurisprudence, theology, exegesis, and hadith emerged during this period, also known as the Seljuk era.

 

Tafsir (Exegesis)

 

Beside being a prominent figure in Sufism, Abu Abdurrahman al-Sulami was also an important figure in the field of exegesis, with an important tafsir named Hakāʾik al-Tafsīr. Another scholar, Abu Ishaq al-Saʿlebī, who had connections to Sufism and authored the tafsir called al-Keşf ve’l-Beyân, was also a significant figure of this era. Makkī ibn Abī Ṭālib, one of the most prominent scholars of Andalusia, had a tafsir named al-Hidāyah ilā Bulūgh al-Nihāyah. Makkī ibn Abī Ṭālib also made significant contributions to the field of Qur’anic recitations. Thus, he can also be seen as a scholar of recitations. Al-Hākim al-Jushamī, a Muʿtazilite scholar, was another prominent exegete of this era. His ten-volume tafsir, known as et-Tehzîb fi’t-Tafsir, is quite significant. Abu al-Ḥasan al-Wāḥidī, famous for his three tafsirs, al-Vecîz, al-Vasît, and al-Basît, was also one of the most important scholars of this era. Abu al-Ḥasan al-Māwardī, known for his concise but useful tafsir named en-Nüket ve’l-Uyûn, also gained fame with his book on political ethics, al-Aḥkāmu’s-Sultāniyyah. Al-Māwardī occasionally served as an ambassador between the caliphate and the Buyids and Seljuks. Abu Jaʿfar al-Ṭūsī, a Shia scholar, wrote his ten-volume work, et-Tibyân fî Tafsiri’l-Kurʾân, according to the Shia understanding. Abdul Karim al-Qushayrī, besides his Sufi identity, was also a commentator. His tafsir, Letâifu’l-İşârât, is one of the most important examples of allegorical exegesis. Abu al-Muzaffer al-Samʿānī, with his work Tafsiru’l-Kurʾân, is not only a scholar of exegesis but also has works in the fields of jurisprudence and theology. Abu al-Muzaffer Shahfur al-Isfarāʼīnī stands out with his Persian-language tafsir titled Tāj al-Tarājim fī Tafsīri’l-Kur’ān al-ʿAẓīm. Al-Isfarāʼīnī was the first to write a tafsir in a language other than Arabic. Abu Bakr Atīq al-Nīshābūrī, known as Surābādī, was also a scholar of this era who wrote a Persian tafsir. Surābādī’s tafsir, known as Tafsīru Sūrābādī or Tafsīru’t-Tafāsīr, is also known as Tafsīru’t-Tafāsīr. Al-Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī is also a good exegete and has a tafsir. In addition to these, other exegetes became famous in this era, such as Ibn Furek, al-Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Jabbār, al-Wazīr al-Maghribī, ʿAbd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, and Abu’l-Fatḥ al-Ghaznawī.

 

Ulum al-Qur’an (Sciences of the Qur’an)

 

In the field of Ulum al-Qur’an (Sciences of the Qur’an), one of the prominent figures is el-Bakillani. His works, “I’jaz al-Qur’an” and “al-Intisar li’l-Qur’an,” are highly significant in the field of Qur’anic sciences. Another important work is “al-Nasih wa’l-Mansuh” by Hibetullah ibn Salamah. The work of El-Hatib al-Iskafi, “Durratu’t-Tanzil” and “Ghurratu’t-Tawil,” is also considered significant. Abu’l-Abbas Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Mustaghfiri, known for his works such as “Dalail al-Nubuwwah,” “Tibb al-Nabi,” and “at-Tamhid fi’t-Tajwid,” has an important work called “Fada’il al-Qur’an.” Another notable work from this era is “Asbabu Nuzul al-Qur’an” by Abu’l-Hasan al-Wahidi. Abdulkahir al-Jurjani’s “Dalail al-I’jaz” is also considered significant. One of the most important scholars of the era is ar-Raghib al-Isfahani, known for his famous work “al-Mufradat,” which is highly renowned and widely read in the field.

 

Qiraat

 

In the field of Qira’at (Quranic recitations), one of the most important figures of the fifth century AH is Abu Amr al-Dani. A scholar from Andalusia, al-Dani wrote around twenty important works on Qira’at, including “al-Taysir.” Another renowned figure is Abu Zur’a Abdurrahman Ibn Jandal, known for his work “Hujjat al-Qira’at.” Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Ahwazi and Ibn Halaful-Muqri, both scholars from Andalusia, are also notable in this field. It is also important to mention Abu’l-Abbas Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Mustaghfiri, who wrote a book titled “at-Tamhid fi’t-Tajwid.”

 

Fiqh-Islamic Jurisprudence

 

One of the most important figures of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence is Abu Bakr al-Jassas, also known as Shams al-A’imma al-Sarakhsi. He was a highly significant scholar of his time, and his work “Al-Mabsut” is a foundational text in the Hanafi school. Another pair of significant scholars in the field of jurisprudence and its principles are the brothers Abu al-Usr Pazdawi and Abu al-Yusr Pazdawi, who wrote important works based on the Hanafi school. Abu Zayd al-Debosi was also a prominent Hanafi scholar known for his work in jurisprudence and is particularly noted for his work “Taqwim al-Adillah.” Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi, known for his expertise in jurisprudence and political science, holds a significant place in the Shafi’i school with his book “Al-Hawi al-Kabir” in addition to his commentary and other works. Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, another important figure, authored several works on Shafi’i jurisprudence and was one of the most prominent teachers at the Nizamiya Madrasa in Baghdad. Abu al-Ma’ali al-Juwayni, known as Imam al-Haramayn, was a standout figure of the fifth century. He wrote extensively on the Shafi’i school, and his students, including Al-Ghazali, became renowned scholars in their own right. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, a prolific writer with numerous works, was one of the leading scholars of the time, though his passing occurred at the beginning of the sixth century AH. Abu al-Walid al-Baji was an important Maliki scholar of the era. One of the most significant figures of the Zahiri school in the fifth century was Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm al-Andalusi, who wrote several works on Zahiri jurisprudence as well as other subjects like hadith, history, and literature. Al-Qadi Abu al-Ya’la ibn al-Farra al-Hanbali was a prominent figure in the Hanbali school. Other important scholars of jurisprudence in the fifth century include Abu al-Hasan al-Basri al-Mu’tazili, Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn Shihab al-Akbari, Abu Abdullah al-Hasan al-Hanbali, and Al-Qadi Abdulwahhab al-Maliki.

 

Hadith

 

One of the most important scholars of the era is Abu Bakr Ahmad al-Bayhaqi. Although he is primarily known for his work “Sunan al-Kubra” in the field of hadith, he was also a significant Shafi’i jurist. He compiled and published Imam Shafi’i’s work “Ahkam al-Quran.” Bayhaqi’s works “Dalail al-Nubuwwah” and “Shu’ab al-Iman” are also well-known. Another prominent figure in the field of hadith is Al-Hakim al-Naysaburi, known for his work “Mustadrak al-Sahihayn.” Another important scholar of hadith in this era is Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Mardawayh, also known as Mirdeveyh, who authored works in tafsir, history, geography, and other fields. Abu Bakr al-Wasiti and Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Humaydi are also significant scholars of hadith in this era, with Humaydi also contributing to the fields of jurisprudence and history. Abu Nuaym al-Isfahani is the author of important works such as “Kitab al-Du’afa” and “Ma’rifat al-Sahaba.” Ibn Abd al-Barr al-Namari, a scholar from Andalusia, is renowned for his work “Al-Istiab fi Ma’rifat al-Ashab,” which gained him fame in history and biographical dictionaries, in addition to being a proficient hadith and Maliki jurisprudence scholar, with significant works in both fields.

 

Arabic Language

 

In the field of Arabic language and grammar, one of the notable scholars of this era is Abdulqahir al-Jurjani. His works “Asrar al-Balagha” and “Dalail al-I’jaz” are well-known. Among other scholars in the field are Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Tamimi al-Qayrawani, commonly known as al-Kazzaz, Abu Tahir al-Nahwi, Abu al-Fadl Ja’far, Abu Ya’qub Yusuf ibn Ya’qub al-Najjarmi, and Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Nahwi, who specialized in lexicography and grammar. The renowned Arab philosopher, poet, and literary figure Abu al-Ala al-Ma’arri is also noteworthy from this era. Ahmed ibn Muhammad al-Harawi made contributions not only in tafsir and hadith but also extensively in the field of language and lexicography. Abu Hilal al-Askari’s “Kitab al-Sinaiyat,” Ibn Rashiq’s “Al-Umdah,” and Ibn Sinan al-Hafaci’s “Sirr al-Fasaha” are among the works written during this period.

 

Aqidah and Kalam

 

Kadi Abduljabbar’s “Tasbitu Delail al-Nubuwwah,” al-Mustaghfiri’s “Delail al-Nubuwwah,” Abu Nuaym al-Isfahani’s “Delail al-Nubuwwah,” al-Mawardi’s “Alamu al-Nubuwwah,” and al-Bayhaqi’s “Delail al-Nubuwwah” are all significant works in this field. In addition to these, it is important to mention the various works of Abu al-Ma’ali al-Juwayni, one of the most important Ash’ari theologians and Shafi’i jurists of the era, related to these two areas. al-Qadi Abu Ya’la Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Farra is a very important Hanbali scholar of the era. He has various works in the fields of Hanbali jurisprudence and its principles, as well as hadith, tafsir, and theology. Among the Imamiyya Shia theologians, we can also mention scholars like Shaykh Mufid and Sharif al-Murtada.

 

The History of Sects- History of Religions

 

Abdulkahir al-Baghdadi’s “al-Fark bayn al-Firak,” Ibn Hazm’s “al-Fasl fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa’ wa al-Nihal,” Muhammad ibn Malik al-Hamadi’s “Kashf Asrar al-Batiniyya wa Ahbar al-Karamita,” and Abu Muzaffer Isfarayini’s “al-Tabsir fi al-Din wa Tamyiz al-Firak al-Najiyah ani al-Halikin” are important works in the history of sects and religions of the era. Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni, who has many important works in various fields, has also produced significant works in the field of religious history.

 

Tasawwuf

 

When we look at the science of Sufism, we must first mention Abu Abdirrahman al-Sulami. In addition to his work “Hakâiku’t-tefsîr,” Sulami has other works on Sufism, such as “Uyûbu’n-Nefs” and “Tabakâtu’s-Sûfiyye.” Abu Ali Ahmed Ibn Miskeveyh, who also has a philosophical and historical aspect, wrote the book “Tehzîbu’l-Ahlâk,” which is a Sufi work. The work “Düreru’l-Hikem” by Abu Mansur al-Sa’libi is also important. Mawardi’s “Edebu’d-Dünya ve’d-Din” is also a significant work in this regard. Beyhaki’s “ez-Zühd el-Kebîr” is an important work in the field. Abu’l-Qasim Abdulkerim Kushayri, the author of “er-Risalet’ul-Kuşeyriye,” is also a scholar of this century. Abu Nuaym al-Isfahani, the author of “Hilyetu’l-Evliyâ and Tabakâtu’l-Asfiya,” is also very important. Abu’l-Hasan Ali al-Hujwiri, especially with his work “Keşfu’l-Mahcûb,” has proven to be one of the most important Sufis of the century. The “Tabakâtu’s-Sûfiyye” of Hujjat al-Islam Abdullah Heravi is also one of the important works of the century. The works of Abu Ya’la al-Qadi, such as “et-Tevekkül;” Ibn Abd al-Barr’s “Behcetu’l-Mecâlis;” Abu’l-Walid al-Baji’s “en-Nasîha el-Velediyye;” Abu Ishaq al-Harawi’s “Menâzilu’s-Sâirîn,” are also important Sufi works of the century. Abu Ali Dekkak, Abu’l Hasan Harakani, Abu Sa’id Abu’l Hayr, Abu Ali Farmedi, and Abu Bakr Nisaj Tusi are also important Sufi scholars of the century.

 

Sirah

 

When we look at the field of Sirah (biography of the Prophet Muhammad) and history, it can be seen that the fifth century was a period in which rich and very important works were produced. Ibn Abdilberr’s “al-Durar fi Ikhtisar al- Maghazi wa al-Siyar” and Ibn Hazm’s “Jawami al-Sira” are two very important books in this regard.

 

History

 

From a historical perspective, the work of the philosopher Ibn Miskawayh, titled “Tajaribu al-Umam wa Taakib al-Himam,” is also very important. Al-Hatīb al-Baghdādī is the most notable figure. His book “Tārīkh Baghdād” is one of the most important works. Al-Baghdādī has also distinguished himself in the field of hadith with numerous works, so he should also be mentioned as a hadith scholar.

 

Tabaqat-Tarajim

 

Ebû Nuaym, the author of the highly significant work “Ma’rifatu’s-Sahaba,” is one of the most important figures in the field. Ibn Abdülber en-Nemerî, a scholar from Al-Andalus, gained great fame with his work “al-Istiab fi Ma’rifat al-Ashab.” The book “al-Muqtabis min Anbai al-Andulus” by Abu Hayyan al-Qurtubî is also important. Ibn al-Faradî’s “Tarihu Ulama al-Andulus,” the history of the scholars of Al-Andalus; al-Hakîm al-Nîsâbûrî’s “Tarihu Nisabur,” the history of Nîsâbûr; Yahya b. Ali Ibn al-Tahhân’s “Tarihu Ulama Ahl Mısr” the history of the scholars of Egypt; Hamza al-Sehmî’s “Tarihu Jurjan”; Abu Nuaym al-Isfehânî’s “Tarihu Isfahan/Ahbaru Isfahan”; and Muhammed b. Fütûh al-Hümeydî’s “Jazwatu al-Muktabis fi Dhikri Wulat al-Andulus” are all notable biographical and historiographical works of the era.

 

Geography

 

Nasir Khusraw’s “Sefername,” a Persian work, and Abu Ubayd al-Bakri’s “Mu’jam Ma Istajama min Asma’il Bilad wal Mawadai’,” are important works in geography.

 

Philosophy-Logic

 

The fifth century of the Hijri calendar is also rich in terms of the science of philosophy. First and foremost, we should mention Ibn Sina, the most important figure in Islamic philosophy. In his works such as “Al-Shifa,” “Al-Najat,” and “Al-Isharat,” he extensively covers topics such as logic, metaphysics, philosophy of religion, ethics, natural philosophy, and psychology. The Golden Age of Islamic Philosophy is often traced back to Ibn Sina in the fifth century. Abu Ali Ahmed Ibn Miskawayh is another important philosopher of the time. Besides being a philosopher, he also worked on ethics, theology, history, and psychology. His book “Al-Fawz Al-Asghar” is related to metaphysics and theology. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, with significant works in medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and the history of religions, should also be mentioned among the most important philosophers of the era.

 

In terms of logic, Ibn Sina stands out once again. He is recognized as the first systematic thinker in the Islamic world in the field of logic. Ibn Sina studied Porphyry’s “Isagoge” and Aristotle’s logical corpus in detail, categorizing logic into various topics. Ibn Hazm, known for his expertise in jurisprudence, is also an important philosopher with significant works in philosophy. Another philosopher and logician of the time is Ibn Tufayl. Commenting on many of Aristotle’s works, Ibn Tufayl is referred to as a “commentator” due to his extensive commentary activities. Al-Ghazali’s work “Tahafut al-Falasifah,” where he criticizes philosophy and philosophers, was also written in this century.

 

Medicine-Natural Sciences

 

In the fifth century of the Hijri calendar, when it comes to medicine, the first name that comes to mind is undoubtedly Ibn Sina. His work “The Canon of Medicine” (Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb) is famous in history and remains significant today. It
has been studied and utilized not only by Muslims but also by non-Muslims. Abu’l-Abbas Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Musta’ghfir, who authored a work titled “Tibb al-Nabi” (The Medicine of the Prophet), is also a notable scholar in medical science and a skilled expert in methodology. Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham, known for his contributions to optics, was one of the greatest scholars of mathematics, physics, astronomy, and philosophy of his time, and he passed away in this century. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, renowned in other fields, is also an important figure in medicine and natural sciences. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, an Andalusian surgeon and physician from the 5th/11th century, is known for his original contributions to the field of surgery, holding a significant place in the history of world medicine.

 

Politics

 

The “Siyasetname” of Nizam al-Mulk, the founder of Nizamiye madrasas and the greatest vizier of the Seljuk dynasty, should also be mentioned. Scholars like Al-Maghribi, Al-Mawardi, and Al-Qadi Abu al-Ya’la ibn al-Farra have also written works related to politics and governance.

 

Prominent Famous Names of the Century

 

In the fifth century of the Islamic calendar, there were numerous caliphs, sultans, kings, commanders, atabeys, emirs, and so on. Some of them stood out more prominently. Mahmud of Ghazni, who led the Ghaznavid Empire; Tughril and Chaghri Beg, who founded the Seljuk Empire; Alp Arslan, who opened the gates of Anatolia to the Turks and expanded the Seljuk Empire to encompass nearly all of the Islamic world; Sultan Melikshah, who further expanded the Seljuk state’s borders; and Nizam al-Mulk, the vizier and founder of the Nizamiye madrasas during the reigns of Alp Arslan and Melikshah; and İbrahim Yinal, who was influential in the conquests during the reign of Tughril Bey, are among those worth mentioning. Additionally, Hasan-i Sabbah, who caused trouble for the Seljuks and spread the Batiniyya movement, and Arslan Besasiri, the Buwayhid commander who inflicted many hardships on the caliph and those around him in Baghdad, should also be mentioned.

 

As seen, the fifth century of the Islamic calendar was a very dynamic and productive century in terms of various sciences. Therefore, all scholars who died between the specified dates in the fifth century are within the scope of the symposium. Likewise, books written, sects founded, important events that occurred, significant services rendered, and important institutions established during these years are also among the topics of the symposium.

 

Symposium Partners

We organized this symposium as Istanbul University Faculty of Theology,

1 – Jamiatu Abdelmalek es-Sa’dî Kulliyetu usul al-Din Dean’s Office (Morocco/Titwan);

2 – Directorate of Muhteberu Kadaya al-Tajdīd fi’d-Dirāsāti al-Islamiyya wa’l-Insaniyya within the Faculté Pluridisciplinaire of Jamiatu Muhammad al-Awwal (Morocco/Oujda),

3 – Directorate of Mukhtabar al-Ulum al-Islamiyya within Jamiatu Abdelmalek al-Sa’dî (Morocco/Titania);

4 – Directorate of the Higher Islamic Institute in Sofia (Bulgaria);

5 – Skopje Faculty of Islamic Sciences (North Macedonia);

6 – Istanbul Fatih Muftiate and

7 – Organized in collaboration with Dar al-Funun Theology Foundation.

Scope

In this symposium, it is aimed to deal with all these important events that took place in the fifth century of Hijri (between 400-499 AH / 1010-1107 AD), the people who lived in this period, the works written, the concepts and subjects
produced, especially within the framework of their relevance and relationship with the period.

Topics

Historical Studies: All people, works, topics and terms in the fields of Sirah and Islamic History, Civilization History, Institutions History, Art History in the fifth century AH.

Qur’anic Studies: All persons, works, topics, and terms that fall into the field of Mushaf Studies, History of the Qur’an, Qıraat, History of the Qıraat, Ulumu’l-Qur’an, Tafsir, Methodology of Tafsir and History in the fifth century AH.

Hadith Studies: All persons, works, topics and terms included in the scope of Hadith, Methodology Hadith and History in the fifth century AH.

Islamic Law Studies: All persons, works, topics and terms included in the scope of Fiqh, Methodology of Fiqh and History in the fifth century AH.

Fiqh Studies: All developments, persons, works, subjects and concepts within the scope of Fiqh, Usūl al-Fiqh and History in the fifth century of Hijri.

Aqāid Studies: All the people, works, topics and terms that fall under the scope of Kalam/Aqidah, History of Kalam, History of Islamic Faith Sects, History of Religions in the fifth century AH.

Linguistic Studies: Arabic Language, Rhetoric and History of the in the fifth century AH, all the people, works, topics and terms that fall under the scope of other languages used by Muslims.

Tasawwuf Studies: All persons, works, topics and terms included in the History of Sufism and Sufism in the fifth century AH.

Studies in Philosophy and Islamic Thought: All persons, works, topics and terms included in Philosophy, Logic, Islamic Thought, History of Islamic Thinking in the fifth century AH.

Religion and Politics Studies: All people, works, topics and terms related to the relationship between Religion and Politics in the fifth century AH.

Medicine and Natural Sciences: The state of natural sciences in the fifth century AH and their relations with religious sciences and all developments, people, works, topics and terms in this field.

 

Some Matters Regarding the Contents of the Papers

 

In this context, the following issues should be noted regarding the papers:

1 – The works to be sent must be original. A work previously published elsewhere will not be accepted if it is sent in its original form or with some minor changes.

2 – The author should be dealing with the subject from a new and different perspective. Studies that deal with a known subject with known methods will not be accepted.

3 – It must be absolutely related to the period. Subjects outside the Hijri 400-499 range will not be accepted.

4 – The work must be presented here for the first time. Friends who have a thesis about the period can present the relevant sections of their theses by overhauling, expanding or narrowing them with a new understanding. However, the
thesis must not have been published. If it has been published, the author can prepare and send the relevant subject again, different from the current version. The same is valid for articles, papers, articles and similar studies. If there is such a work published, the author can present it again and with a new understanding different from the current version.

5 – Studies must be handled in a scientific and academic style.

6 – Studies can be in Turkish as well as Arabic and English.

7 – A person can attend the symposium with only one paper.

8– The sender of the work must name his file as follows: For example: Tafsir_H_Aydar; Hadis_H_Aydar; Like Kelam_H_Aydar. First, he should write the field of the work he sent, and then write his name and surname.

Process

1 – Those who want to participate with a paper meeting these qualifications, should contain 500 words (500 words in Turkish, 500 words in English for Turkish papers; 500 words in Arabic, 500 words in English for Arabic papers; 500 words in English for English papers) revealing the original and original aspect and content of the paper. , 500 words in Turkish) should be sent to the corporate address of the symposium (hicribesinciasir@istanbul.edu.tr) until 23.59 on Monday, 25 April 2024, in the format specified below.

2 – Abstracts will be reviewed by the symposium organizing committee, and those deemed appropriate will be sent to the members of the relevant scientific committee; The abstracts approved by the members will be accepted, the requested changes will be returned to the paper owner to make the necessary changes, and they will be processed after the changes are made. Papers unanimously rejected by the members will not be considered. Papers in which one member expresses a positive opinion and the other a negative opinion will be sent to a third member; Evaluation will be made according to the opinion of the third member. Papers decided to be accepted will be announced on 25 April 2024.

3 – The full text of the accepted papers will not be requested, only a draft plan for presentation will be requested. Draft plans should be sent to the hicribesinciasir@istanbul.edu.tr  address of the symposium organising committee no later than 15 September 2024.

4 – The draft plan will be reviewed by the Organising Committee and will be sent back to the participant to make the requested corrections or changes. The paper, finalized by the participant, will be sent to hicribesinciasir@istanbul.edu.tr  by November 1, 2024.

5 – Those who wish to do so can simply present their papers. Those who will only present their papers must send a draft outline of their presentation to hicribesinciasir@istanbul.edu.tr  by November 1, 2024, at the latest. Participants who wish to do so can publish their papers in article format in any journal. Those who wish to include their papers in an e-book titled “Islamic Sciences in the Fifth Century AH” to be published by an international publisher in 2025 can prepare their papers by the required conditions, name them as shown in the example Kitap_Tafsir_H_Aydar, and send them to hicribesinciasir@istanbul.edu.tr  If accepted, the paper will be published as a chapter in the book.

6- It is aimed to publish this book in 2025. The Turkish and English parts of the book will be published by an international publishing house in Ankara or Istanbul. The Arabic parts will be published in Morocco.

Who Can Participate?

Researchers and academics at all levels who work on the above-mentioned subjects and want to do so can participate in our symposium.

Language of the Symposium

Turkish

Arabic

English

Fee and Accommodation

Participation in our symposium is free of charge. Lunch will be provided on symposium days and refreshments will be served between sessions. Other expenses belong to the participant.

 

Important Dates

Deadline for abstract submission: 15 April 2024

Announcement of accepted abstracts: 25 April 2024

Deadline for submitting a draft plan: 27 October 2024

Symposium Date: 15-16 November 2024

Symposium Venue

Istanbul University, Faculty of Theology Conference Hall

 

 

Organising Committe

Prof. Dr. Hidayet Aydar (Türkiye/Istanbul University/Chairman of the Organising Committee)

Prof. Rashid Kahus (Morocco/Abdelmalek Essaâdi University)

Prof. Muhammad Sharifin (Jordan/Al Albayt University)

Prof. Abdullatif Tilvan (Morocco/Mohammed Premier Oujda University)   

Prof. Dr. Şaban Süleymani (North Macedonia / Skopje Faculty of Islamic Sciences)

Prof. Dr. Abdullah al-Hennan (Uman, Jamiatu Sultan Qaboos)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ziyad Ravashdeh (Türkiye/Istanbul University)

Dr. Abdullah Tırabzon (Bulgaria/Sofia Higher Islamic Institute)

Dr. Selim Çakıroğlu (Türkiye/Istanbul University)

Dr. Sefer Hasanov (Bulgaria/Sofia Higher Islamic Institute)

Dr. Hadîce Elrawashdeh (Jordan/ Istanbul University)

Dr. Abdulkerim Merzûk, (Morocco/Al-Ahaviyyîn University)

Research Assistant Feyza Çelik (Türkiye/Kilis 7 Aralık University/Istanbul University)

Research Assistant Habibe Elmas (Türkiye/ Muş Alparslan University)

PhD Candidate Hatice Ece Erçin (Türkiye/Istanbul University)

PhD Candidate Hani al-Ghusheymi (Yemen/Fatih Sultan Mehmet Foundation University)

MA Student Abbas Mukam,  (Mauritania/Istanbul University)

Academic and Advisory Board

Prof. Dr. Abdulaziz Rahmûnî – Arabic Language and Rhetoric- Fas, Titvan, Abdel Malek Saadi University

Prof. Dr. Abdulhamit Birışık    -Tafsir – Türkiye, Istanbul, Marmara University

Prof. Dr. Abdullah Emin Çimen – Qiraat – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University
Prof. Dr. Abdullah el-Hennân – Tafsir and Qıraat Sciences – Uman, Câmiatu Sultan Kabûs

Prof. Dr. Abdullatif Taleuan – Kalam and Aqaid  –  Morocco, Oujda, Mohammed I University

Prof. Dr. Abdülmuttalip Arpa -Tafsir- Türkiye, Istanbul, Sebahattin Zaim University
Prof. Dr. Abdurrahman Tîb – History – India, Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University

Prof. Dr. Adem Apak – Islamic History – Türkiye, Bursa, Uludağ University
Prof. Dr. Adnan Demircan – Islamic History – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Prof. Dr. Ali Bulut – Arabic Language and Rhetoric – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Prof. Dr. Bekir Kuzudişli – Hadith – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Prof. Dr. Ferhat Koca – Islamic Jurisprudence – Türkiye, Çorum, Hitit University
Prof. Dr. Fethi Ahmet Polat – Tafsir – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University
Prof. Dr. Hişam el-Arabî – Comparative Law – Egypt, Ivory Coast, Abidjan, Furkan İslam University

Prof. Dr. Hülya Alper  –  Kalam – Türkiye, Istanbul, Marmara University

Prof. Dr. Ilyess  Gouissem – Tafsir ve Quranic Sciences – Tunus, Tunus University
Prof. Dr. Karim İfrak – History of Mushaf – France, Paris, France National Libriary

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Dalkılıç – History of Islamic Sects – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Alsheraifin – Hadith – Jordan, Mafrak, Al-ı Beyt University

Prof. Dr. Mohammed Babiker Alawad – Communication Sciences – Sudan, Khartoum, Al Jazeera University

Prof. Dr. Muhammed Abay – Tafsir – Türkiye, Marmara Üniversity

Prof. Dr. Muhammed Çelik   – Tafsir   – Türkiye, Diyarbakır, Dicle University

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ilyas – Hadith – Pakistan, İslamabad, International Islam University
Prof. Dr. Mustafa Ertürk – Hadith – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University
Prof. Dr. Necdet Tosun – Tasawwuf – Türkiye, Istanbul, Marmara University
Prof. Dr. Necmettin Gökkır – Tafsir- Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University
Prof. Dr. Necmettin Kızılkaya   – Islamic Jurisprudence-   Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University
Prof. Dr. Nurettin Gemici – Islamic History – Türkiye, Istanbul Üniversity

Prof. Dr. Ömer Çelik – Tafsir – Türkiye, Marmara Üniversity

Prof. Dr. Ömer Mahir Alper – Islamic Philosophy – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Prof. Dr. Rachid Mohamed Kohouss – Islamic Thought – Morocco, Titvan, Abdel Malek Saadi University

Prof. Dr. Ramazan Humeys – Tafsir ve Quranic Sciences – Qatar, Qatar University

Prof. Dr. Rıfat Türkel – History of Islamic Sects – Türkiye, Kütahya Dumlupınar Üniversity

Prof. Dr. Ruqaia Alalwani  –  Islamic Studies  –  Bahrain, Bahrain University

Prof. Dr. Süleyman Berk – History of Turkish-Islamic Arts – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Prof. Dr. Süleyman Kaya – Islamic Jurisprudence – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Prof. Dr. Şaban Süleymani – Islamic Jurisprudence – North Macedonia / Skopje Faculty of Islamic Sciences

Prof. Dr. Wan Kamal Mujani – Arabic Studies and Islamic Civilisation – National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia

Prof. Dr. Yasir Abdurrahman Tarşânî – Usul and Maqasid – Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, International Medina University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdul-Ghani Ali Al-Ahjury –   Islamic History – Yemen, Qatar University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdulhamid Al-Shish – Hadith – Iraq, Qatar University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adem Arıkan – History of Islamic Sects – Türkiye, Istanbul Üniversity

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Balhayr Amrânî – History of Religions – Algeria, Centre for Islamic Sciences and Culture

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bünyamin Ayçiçeği – Turkish – Islamic Literature – Türkiye, Istanbul Üniversitesi

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Cemal Abdullah Aydın – Arabic Language and Rhetoric – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eisa Rabeeh Ameen Ahmad  –  Kalam – Al Ain University, Abu Dhabi, Jordan

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Fikret Soyal – Kalam – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Assoc. Prof. Dr.  Ibrahım Rashıd Saıf Alghammarı  –  Usul al-Fiqh – Oman, Muscat, College of Sharia Studies

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marwa Mahmoud Kharma – Theology and Islamic Philosophy – Amman, Jordan University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mesut Cevher  –  Tafsir  –  Egypt, Kırıkkale, Kırıkkale University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhammed Huvalde – Tafsir – Jordan, Jaresh, Jaresh University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Musa Alak – Arabic Language and Rhetoric – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mustafa Celil Altuntaş – Hadith – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yılmaz – Tasavvuf – Türkiye, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ömer Mabrakî – Kalam – Morocco, Morocco, Karawiyyin University

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sujiat Zubaidi   – Usul al-Tafsir –   Indonesia, Jawa, Darussalam Gontor University

Dr. Faculty Member  İbrahim Buzeydi – Sosiology – Algeria, Istanbul, Istanbul University

Dr. Faculty Member  Yahya Zekeriya Maabde – Hadith – Jordan, Denizli, Pamukkale University

Dr. Hamza Ferhan – Sociology of Religion – Jordan, Istanbul, Sabahattin Zaim Univesity

 

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