ISLAMIC SCIENCES THROUGH CENTURIES: THE PLACE OF THE HIJRI FOURTH CENTURY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ISLAMIC SCIENCES

We invite you to participate in our international symposium, which we are organising under the title of The Place of the Hijri Fourth Century
in the Development of Islamic Sciences, with a paper.

Justification

It is very important to learn how Islamic sciences started and how they developed in the first centuries. In order to see the point reached in the later periods and today and to understand how it has evolved, it is necessary to know the emergence and development process well.

In order to enable some determinations about how and under which conditions Islamic sciences emerged and what kind of process it followed, we are dealing with the first century of Islamic sciences and the centuries after that, as a series of international symposiums, with the subheading “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries”. In this framework, we examine each century in a separate symposium, discuss the Islamic sciences of that century as a whole and try to bring them up to date. With this, we aim to reveal how the basic Islamic sciences emerged, how they developed, what subjects they started, what course they followed, how much they overlap with the issues we know today, whether they have anything to do with some problems we live in as the Islamic world today, in the historical process or whether there are some breaks, changes, differentiations in any place, and thus to contribute to Islamic science, culture and civilization.

We also try to determine in which centuries, in terms of Islamic sciences, more scientific activities and services were presented, which centuries were richer and brighter in terms of scientific activities, in which centuries scientific studies were weak and insufficient; what is the relationship between the rich or weak scientific activities with the general course of those centuries, administration, politics and socio-cultural situations, how social conditions play a role in the decrease and increase of scientific activities, their quality or weakness; under which conditions sciences diversified and enriched, which conditions regressed scientific studies, whether scientific services and activities have a relationship with geographical regions and factors such as people, climate and nature in those regions, if scientific activities diversified and enriched in any region in any century, what factors were effective in this.

Previous Studies

We tried to reveal the birth, establishment and blooming of Islamic sciences in the first century of Hijri with the title of “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries: International Symposium of the First Century of Hijrah”. In the birth and discovery of Islamic sciences, we tried to show the place and role of the Prophet and his Companions. Likewise, in this century, we tried to show the position and influence of scholars from the Followers generation (tâbiûn) in the development of Islamic sciences. We have tried to highlight the developments in this century, their causes, consequences and their reflections on the next centuries. Around 180 Turkish, Arabic and English papers were sent to the symposium from 16 countries. Since it is not possible to present all of them in two days, 50 papers selected according to various criteria were presented on 24-25 October 2019 at the conference halls of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology with the participation of a large number of listeners. The papers were published as an e-book under the name of Islamic Sciences in the First Century of Hijri (Istanbul: Ensar Publications, 2020, 2 volumes) in the form of an edited book after being passed through the referee process.

We continued this activity, which we took a break in 2020 due to the pandemic, in 2021 with the title of “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries: International Symposium of The Place of the Second Century Hijri in the Formation of Islamic Sciences”, and we covered the developments in the field of Islamic sciences in this century. In the first thirty-five years of this century, the influence of the Tabiun generation continues. After them comes the generation of The Tābiʿū al-Tābʿīn who grew up at their knees. We examined the contribution of all these to the development of Islamic sciences. We examined Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik, who are among the most important figures of this century, and their scientific activities. We revealed the sects that emerged in this period, their effects on the following periods, the scholars who came to the fore in fields such as tafsir, hadith, fiqh, theology, akaid, mysticism, Arabic language and rhetoric, recitation, sirah, Islamic history, history of religions, their works and their effects in various aspects. We tried to introduce the first founding texts written in these fields and the founding persons who gave life to these texts with various studies. In addition, we tried to deal with the mihne incident and translation activities, which are important matters due to their emergence in this century. There was great interest in this symposium. Around 100 papers were sent from 14 different countries in Turkish, Arabic and English. The symposium, in which 62 papers were presented due to the pandemic, was held online on October 22-23, 2021. Some papers were published as an e-book under the name of Islamic Sciences in the Second Century of Hijri (Ankara: IKSAD Publications, 2022, 5 volumes) after passing through the referee process.

In 2022, we organised our third symposium under the title of International Symposium on the Role of the Hijri Third Century in the Development of Islamic Sciences, where we focused on the role of the third century in the development of various sciences. In this study, we have discussed the important names and important works of the third century of Hijri in the fields of tafsir, hadith, fiqh, theology, history of sects, Sufism, Arabic language, Qiraat, as well as history, Sirat, geography, astronomy, and literature. This century is the golden age of hadith. The most important names in the field of hadith, especially Bukhārī and Muslim, and the most authoritative works such as Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh al-Muslim came into existence in this century. Scholars such as Imam Shafi’i and Ahmad b. Hanbal were also treated as very important figures of this century because their death dates were in this century. Personalities such as Bakiy b. Mahled, Yahya b. Sallām, and many other scholars and their works were also discussed in this context. This century is a century in which very important events such as translation activities and extremely sad events such as Mihna were effective; in this respect, these were also examined. This symposium also attracted great interest. Around 118 papers were submitted from 16 different countries in Turkish, Arabic and English. Our organising committee and Scientific and Advisory Board found 106 of them suitable for presentation. The symposium was held on 25-26 November 2022 in parallel in three separate halls at the same time in the conference halls of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology. Some of these papers, together with other works sent to be published as book chapters, will be published as edited book after the referee process. The Turkish and English ones will be published as e-books under the title of Islamic Sciences in the Third Century of Hijrî in Ankara among IKSAD Publications. The Arabic ones will be published by an international publishing house in Morocco under the title al-Ulūm al-Islāmiyya fī al-Qarn al-Thālith al-Hijrī. The printing process of both works will be completed in the near future and will be realised in 2023.

The Place Of The Hijri Fourth Century In The Development Of The Islamic Sciences

 

In 2023, it is aimed to examine various sciences in terms of the Hijri fourth century with the title of the International Symposium on the Place of the Hijri Fourth Century in the Development of Islamic Sciences.

Why Hijri Fourth Century

Like the previous three centuries, the fourth century of Hijri is very important for the Islamic religion and Islamic sciences. We can think of the Hijri first century as a century in which the seeds of Islamic sciences were scattered in the soil and flourished, and the Hijri second century as a century in which Islamic sciences grew and became saplings. The Hijri third century is a century in which these trees now bear fruit and produce bountiful crops. The fourth century is a century in which the fruits ripen and reach their full consistency. We are planning to process this century, in which the products ripen and reach maturity, in various aspects in 2023. Here, when we say the fourth century of the Hijri, we mean the period between the years AH 300-399 and AD 913-1009 in terms of time; in terms of space, we mean the Islamic geography, one end of which is based on the Great Wall of China and the other on the Adriatic Sea and the French border in Andalusia.

Justification

It is very important to learn how Islamic sciences started and how they developed in the first centuries. In order to see the point reached in the later periods and today and to understand how it has evolved, it is necessary to know the emergence and development process well.

In order to enable some determinations about how and under which conditions Islamic sciences emerged and what kind of process it followed, we are dealing with the first century of Islamic sciences and the centuries after that, as a series of international symposiums, with the subheading “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries”. In this framework, we examine each century in a separate symposium, discuss the Islamic sciences of that century as a whole and try to bring them up to date. With this, we aim to reveal how the basic Islamic sciences emerged, how they developed, what subjects they started, what course they followed, how much they overlap with the issues we know today, whether they have anything to do with some problems we live in as the Islamic world today, in the historical process or whether there are some breaks, changes, differentiations in any place, and thus to contribute to Islamic science, culture and civilization.

We also try to determine in which centuries, in terms of Islamic sciences, more scientific activities and services were presented, which centuries were richer and brighter in terms of scientific activities, in which centuries scientific studies were weak and insufficient; what is the relationship between the rich or weak scientific activities with the general course of those centuries, administration, politics and socio-cultural situations, how social conditions play a role in the decrease and increase of scientific activities, their quality or weakness; under which conditions sciences diversified and enriched, which conditions regressed scientific studies, whether scientific services and activities have a relationship with geographical regions and factors such as people, climate and nature in those regions, if scientific activities diversified and enriched in any region in any century, what factors were effective in this.

 

Previous Studies

We tried to reveal the birth, establishment and blooming of Islamic sciences in the first century of Hijri with the title of “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries: International Symposium of the First Century of Hijrah”. In the birth and discovery of Islamic sciences, we tried to show the place and role of the Prophet and his Companions. Likewise, in this century, we tried to show the position and influence of scholars from the Followers generation (tâbiûn) in the development of Islamic sciences. We have tried to highlight the developments in this century, their causes, consequences and their reflections on the next centuries. Around 180 Turkish, Arabic and English papers were sent to the symposium from 16 countries. Since it is not possible to present all of them in two days, 50 papers selected according to various criteria were presented on 24-25 October 2019 at the conference halls of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology with the participation of a large number of listeners. The papers were published as an e-book under the name of Islamic Sciences in the First Century of Hijri (Istanbul: Ensar Publications, 2020, 2 volumes) in the form of an edited book after being passed through the referee process.

We continued this activity, which we took a break in 2020 due to the pandemic, in 2021 with the title of “Islamic Sciences Through Centuries: International Symposium of The Place of the Second Century Hijri in the Formation of Islamic Sciences”, and we covered the developments in the field of Islamic sciences in this century. In the first thirty-five years of this century, the influence of the Tabiun generation continues. After them comes the generation of The Tābiʿū al-Tābʿīn who grew up at their knees. We examined the contribution of all these to the development of Islamic sciences. We examined Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik, who are among the most important figures of this century, and their scientific activities. We revealed the sects that emerged in this period, their effects on the following periods, the scholars who came to the fore in fields such as tafsir, hadith, fiqh, theology, akaid, mysticism, Arabic language and rhetoric, recitation, sirah, Islamic history, history of religions, their works and their effects in various aspects. We tried to introduce the first founding texts written in these fields and the founding persons who gave life to these texts with various studies. In addition, we tried to deal with the mihne incident and translation activities, which are important matters due to their emergence in this century. There was great interest in this symposium. Around 100 papers were sent from 14 different countries in Turkish, Arabic and English. The symposium, in which 62 papers were presented due to the pandemic, was held online on October 22-23, 2021. Some papers were published as an e-book under the name of Islamic Sciences in the Second Century of Hijri (Ankara: IKSAD Publications, 2022, 5 volumes) after passing through the referee process.

 

In 2022, we organised our third symposium under the title of International Symposium on the Role of the Hijri Third Century in the Development of Islamic Sciences, where we focused on the role of the third century in the development of various sciences. In this study, we have discussed the important names and important works of the third century of Hijri in the fields of tafsir, hadith, fiqh, theology, history of sects, Sufism, Arabic language, Qiraat, as well as history, Sirat, geography, astronomy, and literature. This century is the golden age of hadith. The most important names in the field of hadith, especially Bukhārī and Muslim, and the most authoritative works such as Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh al-Muslim came into existence in this century. Scholars such as Imam Shafi’i and Ahmad b. Hanbal were also treated as very important figures of this century because their death dates were in this century. Personalities such as Bakiy b. Mahled, Yahya b. Sallām, and many other scholars and their works were also discussed in this context. This century is a century in which very important events such as translation activities and extremely sad events such as Mihna were effective; in this respect, these were also examined. This symposium also attracted great interest. Around 118 papers were submitted from 16 different countries in Turkish, Arabic and English. Our organising committee and Scientific and Advisory Board found 106 of them suitable for presentation. The symposium was held on 25-26 November 2022 in parallel in three separate halls at the same time in the conference halls of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology. Some of these papers, together with other works sent to be published as book chapters, will be published as edited book after the referee process. The Turkish and English ones will be published as e-books under the title of Islamic Sciences in the Third Century of Hijrî in Ankara among IKSAD Publications. The Arabic ones will be published by an international publishing house in Morocco under the title al-Ulūm al-Islāmiyya fī al-Qarn al-Thālith al-Hijrī. The printing process of both works will be completed in the near future and will be realised in 2023.

 

The Place Of The Hijri Fourth Century In The Development Of The Islamic Sciences

 

In 2023, it is aimed to examine various sciences in terms of the Hijri fourth century with the title of the International Symposium on the Place of the Hijri Fourth Century in the Development of Islamic Sciences.

Why Hijri Fourth Century

Like the previous three centuries, the fourth century of Hijri is very important for the Islamic religion and Islamic sciences. We can think of the Hijri first century as a century in which the seeds of Islamic sciences were scattered in the soil and flourished, and the Hijri second century as a century in which Islamic sciences grew and became saplings. The Hijri third century is a century in which these trees now bear fruit and produce bountiful crops. The fourth century is a century in which the fruits ripen and reach their full consistency. We are planning to process this century, in which the products ripen and reach maturity, in various aspects in 2023. Here, when we say the fourth century of the Hijri, we mean the period between the years AH 300-399 and AD 913-1009 in terms of time; in terms of space, we mean the Islamic geography, one end of which is based on the Great Wall of China and the other on the Adriatic Sea and the French border in Andalusia.

abbasi-harita

In this period, as can be understood from the map[1], one end of the Islamic geography is in the Atlantic Ocean and the other end is on the Great Wall of China. In addition, the Islamic State of Andalusia has completely dominated the territory of today’s Spain. Muslims dominated the Mediterranean and were completely active in the Caucasus and Central Asia. There were many Islamic states and dynasties in this century. Although most of them accepted the Abbasid caliphate, they were independent states or dynasties on their own. From time to time, these states or dynasties fought wars with the Abbasids and often among themselves, and from time to time some states or dynasties could be eliminated by another Islamic state. Due to these wars and internal conflicts, there was not a great deal of reconstruction, education and trade movements in the Islamic geography, but there were still some important attempts in these fields in some regions. We can say that political and military movements were more effective in this century.

When we look at the states that had relations with the Abbasid caliphate in this period and had very serious effects on the caliphate from time to time, we see the existence of around 10 states and dynasties as shown in the table on the right. Some of these states and dynasties were established before the fourth century, the century we are focusing on here, and continued their life after this century. Some of them emerged in this century; some of them disappeared in this century. These were mostly Turkish and Iranian states. In terms of sect, they mostly belong to the Ahl al-Sunnah/Sunni tendency.

In terms of religious sciences, we see that the fourth century of Hijri was very productive like the third century. Although the science of tafsir was formed in the first two centuries of Hijri, it was in the third century of Hijri that tafsir activities were carried out intensively. In this period, a large number of tafsirs, especially linguistic tafsirs, and prominent commentators stand out. The most important works in the science of tafsir were written in the fourth century. We can say that the first work that comes to mind when we talk about tafsir is Abū Ja’far Ibn Jarīr al-Tabarī’s Jāmi al-bayān an ta’wīli āyi’l-Qur’ān. If this enormous work of al-Tabarī is ignored, it is certain that there will be a great deficiency in tafsīr. It can be said that the predominant aspect of this work is narration. Another important work like this one is the work of Abū Mansūr Muhammad Māturīdī’s Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, in which the dirāyah aspect is prominent. This work, also known as Ta’wīlāt al-Ahl al-Sunnah, is a complete tafsīr. Other scholars who wrote very important exegesis in the fourth century of Hijri can be given as follows: Abū ‘Alī al-Jubbā’ī, Abū al-Qāsim al-Balkhī, Abū Ishaq al-Zajjāj, Abū Bakr Ibn al-Munzir, Abū Muslim al-Isfahānī, Ibn Abī Hātim al-Rāzī, Abū Ja’far al-Nahhās, Abū Bakr al-Jaṣṣās, Abū al-Lays al-Samarqandī, Ibn Abī Zamanīn. These are the ones who have gained fame. Although not as much as these, there are still other names that are important in tafsīr. Some of them wrote their tafsīrs based on the method of narration, while others adopted the method of dirāyah. There are also many tafsirs written on the basis of methods such as ahkām, lexicon, and mysticism. Again, while some of these exegetes adopted the Ahl al-Sunnah understanding, others such as al-Jubbāʾī, al-Balkhī, al-Isfahānī wrote their works based on the Mutazilite understanding. Scholars such as Abu’l-Qāsim Furat al-Kūfī, Abu’n-Nasr al-Ayyāshī al-Samarqandī, Abu’l-Hasan Ali b. Ibrahim al-Kummī wrote their commentaries based on the Shi’ite mentality.

Although Hijri fourth century is more important in terms of the science of hadith, the fourth century is also of considerable importance. Abu Abdirrahman al- Nasā’ī, who died at the beginning of the century, is the author of one of the most important books of Sunan. Al-Nasā’ī is also an important commentator who has a tafsir. Abu’l-Qasim al-Tabarānī is an indispensable scholar in the science of hadith. He added a lot to the science of hadith with the Mu’jams he wrote. Tabarani also has an important work on tafsir called al-Tafsı̄r al-Kabı̄r. Abū Ya’la al-Mawsilī, Abū Bakr Ibn Khuzayma, Abū ‘Awāna al-Isferāyinī, Abū Hatim Ibn Hibbān, Abū al-Hasan al-Dāraqutnī, Abū Muhammad Rāmhurmuzī, who wrote the first work in the field of hadith methodology, and many other important hadith scholars lived in this period and wrote important works. This century was also a century in which classification types such as mustadrak and mustahraj came to the fore. The first examples of atraf hadiths and annotation on previous hadith books were also written in this century. Al-Kāfī, which is valued by the Shia in the same way as Bukhārī’s position in the eyes of the Ahl al-Sunnah, was prepared by al-Qulaynī in this period.

The fourth century of Hijri is very important, especially in terms of the theological sects. While the Mutazilite sect started to grow stronger and spread throughout the region with the support of the government from the second century onwards and became institutionalised thanks to this great interest, the Ahl al-Sunnah did not yet have an institutionalised structure. Although Imam Malik, Imam Shafi’i, Ahmad b. Hanbal and some other scholars, starting from Imam Abu Hanifa, dealt with the theological issues in their works, but a disciplined sect of Ahl al-Sunnah had not yet emerged in this regard. Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash’arī and Abū Mansūr al-Māturīdī, who emerged in this century, established two major theological sects of the Ahl al-Sunnah school and gave them an institutional identity. Al-Ash’arı̄ was initially a member of the Mutazilite sect, but he found the views of this sect contrary to the evidence and reason, so he left this sect and founded his sect. Both of these scholars are scholars of the fourth century of Hijri. Today, the majority of Muslims belong to the Ash’ariyya sect founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari, and the other part belongs to the Māturīdiyya sect founded by Abu Mansūr Māturidī. Apart from this, Abū ‘Ali al-Jubbā’ī and Abu’l-Qasim al-Balkhī, besides being scholars of tafsir, were also very important Mutazilite theological scholars and defended their sect fervently. Sheikh Mufid and Ibn al-Juham are also important theological scholars of Shia.

In terms of the science of fiqh, although the practical fiqh sects emerged and took shape earlier, the institutionalisation of these sects and the formation of their founding texts continued to increase in this century. Abu Ja’far al-Tahāwī and Abu Bakr al-Jaṣṣās, who are both exegetes, are also great jurisprudential scholars. In particular, some of the most important of basic procedural works of Hanafi fiqh were written by these two scholars. Abu ‘Ali al-Bardaı̄, Abu’l-Hasan al-Karhı̄, Abu Bakr al-Iskāf, Abu’l-Lays al-Samarqandı̄, who was also an exegete, are some of the scholars who served the spread of the Hanafi madhhab in this period. Likewise, very important scholars of the Shafi’i, Mālikī and Hanbalī sects produced works that constitute the basis of their sects in this century. Abu’l-Abbas Ibn Suryaj, Abu’l-Abbas Yaqūb b. Ishaq, Abu’l-Abbas Yaqūb b. Asamm, Abū Bakr Ismail al-Kaffāl al-Kabīr are some of the scholars who spread the Shafi’i sect in this century. Scholars such as Abū Bakr al-Khalāl and Abu’l-Qasim al-Khirāqī also rendered great service to the Hanbali sect in this century. Scholars such as Ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawānī, Abū ‘Umar al-Mālikī, Ibrahim b. Ishaq b. Abī Zard al-‘Amawī al-Tuwaytulī also spread the Maliki sect. The most important names in terms of Jafari/Shi’i jurisprudence are al-Quwaynī and Ibn Babawayh al-Qummī, who were also important hadith scholars.

Abū Bakr Ibn al-Anbārī also wrote important works in the field of Qira’ah as well as Arabic language. Abu Bakr al-Naqqāsh also performed important services in the field of Qira’ah in addition to his exegesis. Ibn Abī Dāwūd al-Sijistānī’s Kitāb al-Masāhif; Abū Bakr Ibn Mujahid’s Kitāb al-Sab’a fi al-Qiraāt; Abū Bakr Ibn al-Anbārī’s Kitāb Izāhi al-Waqfī wa al-Ibtidā; and Abū Ja’far al-Nahhās’ al-Qat’ wa al-Itnāf, who was also an important exegete, are also very valuable works in the field of Qira’at in this century. Among the other noteworthy Qiraat scholars of the century, we can mention Abu Mansur al-Azharī al-Kharawi, Abū ‘Abdillah Ibn Khālawayh, Abu’l-Fath Ibn Jinnī, Ibn Ghalbūn, Abū Bakr b. Mihrān.

In the field of lexicography, in addition to scholars such as al-Zajjāj and al-Naḥḥās, who were also commentators, we should also mention Abū ‘Ali al-Fārisī and his student Ibn Jinnī, both of whom have numerous works on grammar. Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Arafe Nafduye is also an important lexicographical scholar. In terms of the Andalusian linguistic school, Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Zubaydī should be mentioned.

In the field of history, the most important work of the period and perhaps of all periods, Tārı̄hu al-Umam wa’l-Mulūk, and its author Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Murūj al-Zahab, Ahbār al-Zamān, works such as al-Tanbih wa’l-Ishrāf and its author Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Mas’ūdī, the work Ahl al-Nabi wa ‘adābuhu and its author Abu al-Sheikh Ibn Hayyān al-Isfahāni are important works and historians that should be mentioned.

In Sufism, Hallaj al-Mansūr, Abū Nasr al-Sarrāj, Abū Said b. ‘Arabī, al-Hakīm al-Tirmidhī, Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Kalābāzī, Abū Talib al-Makkī are the most important Sufi scholars of the period. In this period, Sufism started to become an independent discipline with masail, mabadi’ and metodology by concentrating on some basic issues and emerged as a science. Sufis had some debates within themselves on some issues, especially shatahat and semai tawakkul, and were also criticised harshly by members of some non-Sufism disciplines.

In the field of philosophy, the most important scholar of the period was Abu’n-Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi. Al-Farabi grounded Islamic philosophy in terms of method, terminology and problems. Other scholars also engaged in philosophy in this century.

Abu Bakr b. Hudhayme Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi was an important scholar of the period who wrote works in the field of medicine. Ali b. Abbas and Ali b. Isa also made important services in the field of medicine in this period. In this century, there are also scholars who wrote works in fields such as history, siyar, geography, and sociology as well as medicine.

Some important events were also realised in this century. One of the most important events of the period was the terror of the Qarmatians in the first twenty years of the century. They committed massacres both in Iraqi cities such as Basra, Baghdad, Kufa and in two holy cities of the Hijaz region such as Mecca and Medina. They removed Hajr al-Aswad from its place and kept it with them for 22 years. Only after that they brought it back and put it in its place. During this period, there were various internal revolts and disturbances, the dismissal, murder or torture of the caliphs, attacks on the caliphate by the rulers of some Muslim states, some economic problems, some revolts based on religion and sect, the outbreak of some epidemics, especially in Baghdad and its surroundings, the proliferation of rabies cases to an unpreventable extent, the death of thousands of people due to these diseases, earthquakes, excessive rains and some similar natural disasters.

As can be seen, the fourth century of Hijri was a very active and productive century in terms of many sciences. Accordingly, all the scholars who died between the dates mentioned in the fourth century of Hijri are within the scope of the symposium. Books written between these years, sects established, important events that took place, important services rendered, and important institutions established are also among the subjects of the symposium.

Important wars fought in this century, new conquered regions, political events, relations with neighbouring countries, social and economic mobility are also within the scope of the symposium.

 

Symposium Partners

We organized this symposium as Istanbul University Faculty of Theology, Jāmiat Abd al-Malek al-Sādi Kulliyat Usūl al-Dīn Deanate (Morocco/Titwan); Directorate of Muhteberu Kadaya al-Tajdīd fi’d-Dirāsāti al-Islamiyya wa’l-Insāniyya (Morocco/Oujda) within the Cāmiatu Muhammad al-Awwal Faculté Pluridisciplinaire, the Directorate of Muhteberu’l-Ulūm al-Islāmiyya (Morocco/Titvan) within the Jāmiat Abd al-Malek al-Sādi Faculté Pluridisciplinaire and the Directorate of the Higher Islamic Institute in Sofia (Bulgaria).

 

Scope

In this symposium, it is aimed to deal with all these important events that took place in the fourth century of Hijri (between 300-399 AH / 913-1009 AD), the people who lived in this period, the works written, the concepts and subjects produced, especially within the framework of their relevance and relationship with the period.

 

Topics

Historical Studies: All people, works, topics and terms in the fields of Sirah and Islamic History, Civilization History, Institutions History, Art History in the fourth century AH.

Qur’anic Studies: All persons, works, topics, and terms that fall into the field of Mushaf Studies, History of the Qur’an, Qıraat, History of the Qıraat, Ulumu’l-Qur’an, Tafsir, Methodology of Tafsir and History in the fourth century AH.

Hadith Studies: All persons, works, topics and terms included in the scope of Hadith, Methodology Hadith and History in the fourth century AH.

Islamic Law Studies: All persons, works, topics and terms included in the scope of Fiqh, Methodology of Fiqh and History in the fourth century AH.

Fiqh Studies: All developments, persons, works, subjects and concepts within the scope of Fiqh, Usūl al-Fiqh and History in the fourth century of Hijri.

Aqāid Studies: All the people, works, topics and terms that fall under the scope of Kalam/Aqidah, History of Kalam, History of Islamic Faith Sects, History of Religions in the fourth century AH.

Linguistic Studies: Arabic Language, Rhetoric and History of the in the fourth century AH, all the people, works, topics and terms that fall under the scope of other languages used by Muslims.

Sufi Studies: All persons, works, topics and terms included in the History of Sufism and Sufism in the fourth century AH.

Studies in Philosophy and Islamic Thought: All persons, works, topics and terms included in Philosophy, Logic, Islamic Thought, History of Islamic Thinking in the fourth century AH.

Religion and Politics Studies: All people, works, topics and terms related to the relationship between Religion and Politics in the fourth century AH.

Medicine and Natural Sciences: The state of natural sciences in the fourth century AH and their relations with religious sciences and all developments, people, works, topics and terms in this field.

 

Some Matters Regarding the Contents of the Papers

In this context, the following issues should be noted regarding the papers:

1 – The works to be sent must be original. A work previously published elsewhere will not be accepted if it is sent in its original form or with some minor changes.

2 – The author should be dealing with the subject from a new and different perspective. Studies that deal with a known subject with known methods will not be accepted.

3 – It must be absolutely related to the period. Subjects outside the Hijri 300-399 range will not be accepted.

4 – The work must be presented here for the first time. Friends who have a thesis about the period can present the relevant sections of their theses by overhauling, expanding or narrowing them with a new understanding. However, the thesis must not have been published. If it has been published, the author can prepare and send the relevant subject again, different from the current version. The same is valid for articles, papers, articles and similar studies. If there is such a work published, the author can present it again and with a new understanding different from the current version.

5 – Studies must be handled in a scientific and academic style.

6 – Studies can be in Turkish as well as Arabic and English.

7 – A person can attend the symposium with only one paper.

8– The sender of the work must name his file as follows: For example: Tafsir_H_Aydar; Hadis_H_Aydar; Like Kelam_H_Aydar. First, he should write the field of the work he sent, and then write his name and surname.

Process

1 – Those who want to participate with a paper meeting these qualifications, should contain 500 words (500 words in Turkish, 500 words in English for Turkish papers; 500 words in Arabic, 500 words in English for Arabic papers; 500 words in English for English papers) revealing the original and original aspect and content of the paper. , 500 words in Turkish) should be sent to the corporate address of the symposium (hicridorduncuasir@istanbul.edu.tr) until 23.59 on Sunday, 16 July 2023, in the format specified below.

2 – Abstracts will be reviewed by the symposium organizing committee, and those deemed appropriate will be sent to the members of the relevant scientific committee; The abstracts approved by the members will be accepted, the requested changes will be returned to the paper owner to make the necessary changes, and they will be processed after the changes are made. Papers unanimously rejected by the members will not be considered. Papers in which one member expresses a positive opinion and the other a negative opinion will be sent to a third member; Evaluation will be made according to the opinion of the third member. Papers decided to be accepted will be announced on 26 July 2023.

3 – The full text of the accepted papers will not be requested, only a draft plan for presentation will be requested. Draft plans should be sent to the hicridorduncuasir@istanbul.edu.tr  address of the symposium organising committee no later than 27 October 2023.

4 – The draft plan will be reviewed by the Organising Committee and will be sent back to the participant to make the requested corrections or changes. The finalised paper by the participant will be presented at the symposium to be held on 17-18 November 2023.

5 – Participants who wish can submit their papers in article format to any journal for publication. Those who wish to publish their papers in an e-book to be published by an international publishing house under the title of Islamic Sciences in the Hijri Fourth Century, can send them to hicridorduncuasir@istanbul.edu.tr by naming them as in the example of Kitap_Tefsir_H_Aydar by making them in accordance with the conditions required for the chapter. If accepted, the paper will be published as a book chapter.

6- It is aimed to publish this book in 2024. The Turkish and English parts of the book will be published by an international publishing house in Ankara or Istanbul. The Arabic parts will be published in Morocco or another Arab country.

 

Who Can Participate?

Researchers and academics at all levels who work on the above-mentioned subjects and want to do so can participate in our symposium.

 

Language of the Symposium

Turkish

Arabic

English

 

Fee and Accommodation

Participation in our symposium is free of charge. Lunch will be provided on symposium days and refreshments will be served between sessions. Other expenses belong to the participant.

 

Organising Committee

Prof. Dr. Hidayet Aydar (Türkiye/Istanbul University/Chairman of the Organising Committee)

Prof. Dr. Abdülhamit Birışık (Türkiye, Marmara University)

Prof. Rashid Kahus (Morocco/Abdelmalek Essaâdi University)

Prof. Muhammad Sharifin (Jordan/Al Albayt University)

Prof. Abdullatif Tilvan (Morocco/Mohammed Premier Oujda University)   

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ilyas( Pakistan, Islamabad International Islamic University)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ziyad Ravashdeh (Türkiye/Istanbul University)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Isa Rabih ( Jordan, Jordan University)

Dr. Abdullah Tırabzon (Bulgaria/Sofia Higher Islamic Institute)

Dr. Sefer Hasanov (Bulgaria/Sofia Higher Islamic Institute)

Dr. Abdelkarim Marzouk (Morocco/Al Akhawayn University)

RA PhD Student Feyza Çelik (Türkiye/Kilis 7 Aralık University/Istanbul University)

PhD Student Hatice Ece Erçin (Türkiye /Istanbul University)

PhD Student Hani al-Ghusheymi (Yemen/Fatih Sultan Mehmet Foundation University)

Graduate Student Ayşe Hümeyra Otalı (Türkiye /Istanbul University)

 

Important Dates

Deadline for abstract submission: 16 July 2023

Announcement of accepted abstracts: 26 July 2023

Deadline for submitting a draft plan: 27 October 2023

Symposium Date: 17-18 November 2023

 

Symposium Venue

Istanbul University, Faculty of Theology Conference Hall

Close